Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Installation of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS on a Dell PC with a UEFI BIOS, Secure Boot and Machine Owner Key (MOK)

Ubuntu is the Linux distribution that has the most mainstream support from chip manufacturers such as Intel, AMD and NVIDIA and OEMs such as Dell and Lenovo. In the vast majority of cases (unless your device is absolutely bleeding edge) all the required drivers will be inbuilt into the Linux Kernel or obtained via Ubuntu Software Updates. Ubuntu is open source software meaning you can download, install and use it without any payment. There are no product keys or activation mechanisms which are commonly found in commercial products such as Windows. If satisfied you can optionally donate to the Ubuntu project to help fund further development. Ubuntu also uses the GNOME3 Desktop Environment which offers the best support for 2 in 1 Touchscreen Devices facilitating auto-rotation using the rotation sensor and a touchscreen keyboard. These are areas that most other Linux Desktop Environments lack in. For a more detailed overview of Linux Distributions see my Linux Guide:

Table of contents

  1. Installation of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS on a Dell PC with a UEFI BIOS, Secure Boot and Machine Owner Key (MOK)
    1. Videos
      1. Dell UEFI BIOS Ubuntu Install
        1. Updating the Dell UEFI BIOS and Firmware in Ubuntu
          1. Lenovo UEFI BIOS Ubuntu Install
            1. Updating the Lenovo UEFI BIOS using a FreeDOS Bootable USB
              1. Fixing the FireFox Touchscreen Scrolling Issue
                1. Fixing the Black Splash Screen After Software Updates
                  1. Creating a Windows 10 UEFI Bootable USB in Ubuntu
                    1. Linux Vendor Firmware Service
                    2. Create a UEFI Bootable USB
                      1. Create a UEFI Bootable USB in Windows
                        1. Create a UEFI Bootable USB in Ubuntu
                        2. Unified Extensive Firmware Interface (UEFI)
                          1. Update your UEFI BIOS
                            1. Create a Non-Bootable USB Flash Drive (Windows)
                              1. Create a Non-Bootable USB Flash Drive (Linux)
                                1. Updating your UEFI BIOS from USB using the Dell UEFI BIOS Boot Menu
                                2. Dell Unified Extensive Firmware Interface (UEFI) Settings
                                  1. UEFI and Secure Boot
                                    1. Trusted Platform Module (2.0)
                                      1. Boot Sequence
                                        1. SATA Operation
                                          1. ThunderBolt
                                            1. Secure Erase Internal Drives
                                          2. Booting from the Ubuntu Live USB
                                            1. Installing Ubuntu
                                              1. Machine Owner Key (MOK)
                                                1. First Time Boot
                                                  1. Software Updater
                                                    1. Fixing the Black Splash Screen Issue after Software Updates
                                                      1. Additional Drivers
                                                        1. Optimising for Touch Input
                                                          1. Resolving the FireFox Touchscreen Scrolling Issue
                                                            1. Installing Chromium via the Software Store
                                                              1. Installing Chromium via the Terminal
                                                                1. Snap
                                                                  1. Advanced Package Tool (APT)
                                                                    1. Advanced Package Tool Get (APT-Get)
                                                                      1. Third Party Repositories
                                                                      2. UEFI BIOS Settings for Thunderbolt Dell Dock Compatibility
                                                                        1. Linux Vendor Firmware Service
                                                                          1. Creating a Windows 10 UEFI Bootable USB in Ubuntu

                                                                            Videos

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Ubuntu Install

                                                                            Updating the Dell UEFI BIOS and Firmware in Ubuntu

                                                                            Lenovo UEFI BIOS Ubuntu Install

                                                                            Updating the Lenovo UEFI BIOS using a FreeDOS Bootable USB

                                                                            Fixing the FireFox Touchscreen Scrolling Issue

                                                                            Fixing the Black Splash Screen After Software Updates

                                                                            Creating a Windows 10 UEFI Bootable USB in Ubuntu

                                                                            Linux Vendor Firmware Service

                                                                            Create a UEFI Bootable USB

                                                                            UEFI has been the standard since 2012 and is an upgrade from the Legacy Basic Input Output System (BIOS). The words UEFI and BIOS are however often used interchangeably, to prevent confusion I tend to explicitly use the terms UEFI BIOS and Legacy BIOS. Secure Boot is a Hardware Security Feature that only allows a Bootloader with a Secure Boot Signature to proceed. Secure Boot is designed to prevent Ransomware from hijacking the Bootloader and compromising the Operating System and Operating System Security features before the Operating System Boots. Secure Boot has also been a standard since 2012 however there was a major Grand Unified Bootloader 2 (GRUB2) Security Exploit in 2020 which compromised the integrity of Secure Boot allowing smarter Ransomware to bypass Secure Boot. For Security your UEFI BIOS should be patched to the latest version available from your computer manufacturer before installation of Ubuntu. All UEFI BIOS Updates from May 2020 should be patched for this GRUB2 Security Exploit. In addition newer UEFI BIOS Updates often resolve installation issues commonly experienced with the updated GRUB2 Bootloader.

                                                                            The Ubuntu ISO has an updated GRUB2 that allows for installation on a computer equipped with an UEFI BIOS with Secure Boot Enabled (2020 GRUB2 Security Exploit Patched). A Machine Owner Key (MOK) is required for installation of additional (NVIDIA) drivers and multimedia codecs.

                                                                            This guide will only cover installation on a PC with a UEFI BIOS and Secure Boot. Instructions for optimising the UEFI BIOS setup will be given before installation instructions.

                                                                            Create a UEFI Bootable USB in Windows

                                                                            You will need to download the Ubuntu ISO from:

                                                                            In Windows use Rufus to make the Bootable USB:

                                                                            Rufus and Zorin OS 16 ISO.

                                                                            Accept the User Account Control Prompt:

                                                                            Windows 10 User Account Control Prompt for Rufus

                                                                            Select, select:

                                                                            Rufus, select ISO.

                                                                            Load your Ubuntu ISO:

                                                                            Rufus Load Zorin OS 16 ISO

                                                                            Select the ISO Checksums button:

                                                                            Rufus Zorin OS 16 ISO Check ISO Checksums

                                                                            The SHA256 will be listed. Copy and paste the SHA256 and perform a Google search with it. For a complete ISO the checksum will be listed, likely giving the Ubuntu website as the top search result. If there is no match your ISO is unique meaning it is likely corrupted.

                                                                            Rufus Zorin OS 16 ISO Checksums.

                                                                            Insert your 16 GB USB flash drive. It will be listed at the top:

                                                                            Rufus GPT Partition Scheme.

                                                                            For a UEFI Bootable USB ensure the Partition Scheme is GPT and the File System is FAT32. The target system should be UEFI and the cluster size should be 8192 Bytes. Once these options have been selected, select Start:

                                                                            Rufus UEFI Bootable USB.

                                                                            Select Write in ISO Mode and select OK:

                                                                            Rufus Write in ISO Mode.

                                                                            Select OK to format the USB Flash Drive:

                                                                            Rufus format USB warning.

                                                                            When Finished it will say Ready. You can now close Rufus:

                                                                            Rufus Zorin OS Bootable USB Ready.

                                                                            Create a UEFI Bootable USB in Ubuntu

                                                                            You will need to download the Ubuntu 20.04 ISO and then you can use the inbuilt utility to make the Bootable USB:

                                                                            Select Startup Disc Creator:

                                                                            Select Make Startup Disk:

                                                                            Select Yes:

                                                                            This application requires elevated permissions to format USB devices. You will see the following Authentication Required screen. This is the Linux equivalent of Windows User Account Control. In Linux you need to input your password and select Authenticate to proceed opposed to just selecting Yes in Windows.

                                                                            You should now have your Bootable USB:

                                                                            Unified Extensive Firmware Interface (UEFI)

                                                                            Update your UEFI BIOS

                                                                            All Computers Manufactured in 2012 or later have a Unified Extensive Firmware Interface (UEFI). Make sure your UEFI BIOS is updated to the latest version before attempting to install Ubuntu as a number of UEFI BIOS Updates resolve some common Boot Issues.

                                                                            To enter the UEFI BIOS setup power up your Dell and press [F2]:

                                                                            Enter the Dell UEFI BIOS Setup.
                                                                            The Dell UEFI BIOS Setup.

                                                                            Select System Information. This will tell you your BIOS Version. In this case it is an OptiPlex 7040 and the BIOS Version is 1.18.1. If your system was manufactured in Late 2015 or later it should have a UEFI BIOS Update to patch the GRUB2 Security Exploit:

                                                                            The Dell UEFI BIOS Setup System Information giving the BIOS Version.

                                                                            To the bottom you will see the Processor and Video Controller:

                                                                            The Dell UEFI BIOS Setup System information giving Processor and Video Cotnroller.

                                                                            The Video Controller is Intel and not NVIDIA meaning the normal option will be selected opposed to the NVIDIA option during installation.

                                                                            For Dell systems manufactured in late 2015 or later you can update the UEFI BIOS from a Non-Bootable USB Flash Drive within the UEFI BIOS Boot Menu. This is discussed below.

                                                                            For systems manufactured in 2012-mid 2015 which are no longer actively supported by Computer Manufacturers as all systems are out with the warranty period it is easier to install the systems final UEFI BIOS Update within Windows however a FreeDOS Bootable USB can also be used. These older systems will not have a GRUB2 Security Exploit patched Secure Boot however it is still recommended to use a UEFI Boot with Secure Boot as the earlier version of Secure Boot will still prevent a lot of Ransomware.

                                                                            Create a Non-Bootable USB Flash Drive (Windows)

                                                                            In Windows we will use Rufus to make a Non-Bootable USB flash drive. Launch Rufus:

                                                                            Accept the User Account Control Prompt:

                                                                            To the top select your USB, then under the Boot selection dropdown, select Non Bootable. Select the GPT Partition Scheme and FAT32 File System. Optionally provide a USB volume label:

                                                                            Select OK to format the USB Flash Drive:

                                                                            When Finished it will say Ready. You can now close Rufus:

                                                                            Go to the Dell Website, select your model and select BIOS:

                                                                            Check the version, if it is newer that your current version (in this case 1.20.1 > 1.18.1) download the latest UEFI BIOS Update:

                                                                            Now copy the UEFI BIOS Update to the blank USB flash drive:

                                                                            You can deleted the Autorun files that Rufus creates by default on the USB Flash Drive.

                                                                            Create a Non-Bootable USB Flash Drive (Linux)

                                                                            In Linux we will use GParted to make a Non-Bootable USB flash drive which we can copy our UEFI BIOS update to.

                                                                            Insert your USB flash drive and launch GParted from the Start Menu:

                                                                            Launch GParted from the start Menu.

                                                                            As we will be making changes to the partition table on the USB Flash Drive we will need elevated permissions and therefore get an Authentication Prompt. The Linux equivalent of Windows User Account Control Prompt. Input your password and select Authenticate:

                                                                            Accept the GParted Authentication Prompt.

                                                                            To the top right, select your USB Flash Drive:

                                                                            Select your USB Flash Drive in GParted.

                                                                            Select Create Partition Table:

                                                                            Create a New Partition Table on your USBDevice in GParted.

                                                                            Select the GPT Partition Table and then seelct Apply:

                                                                            Create a blank GPT table on your USB using GParted.

                                                                            You will now have a blank Partition Table. Right click it and select New to Create a New Partition on it:

                                                                            Create a new partition on your blank GPT partition table in GParted.

                                                                            Select Create New Partition:

                                                                            In GParted. Name your Partition USB1, use the FAT32 File System and call the Label USB.

                                                                            Select Apply:

                                                                            To format the USB select apply in GParted.

                                                                            Select Apply confirming that you will lose any data on your USB Flash Drive:

                                                                            GParted select Apply,

                                                                            The blank USB is now created, select Close:

                                                                            Open your blank USB:

                                                                            Open your Blank USB.

                                                                            Go to the Dell Website, select your model and select BIOS:

                                                                            Download the Dell UEFI BIOS Update fro the Dell website.

                                                                            Check the version, if it is newer that your current version (in this case 1.19.1 > 1.18.1) download the latest UEFI BIOS Update:

                                                                            Downloading the Dell UEFI BIOS Update.

                                                                            Select Save File and then OK:

                                                                            Save the Dell UEFI BIOS Update to File.

                                                                            Now copy the UEFI BIOS Update to the blank USB flash drive:

                                                                            Updating your UEFI BIOS from USB using the Dell UEFI BIOS Boot Menu

                                                                            Insert your USB Flash Drive with the Dell UEFI BIOS Update and then power off your Dell. Power it on and press [F12] to get to the UEFI BIOS Boot Menu:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Boot Menu press F12

                                                                            Press [↓] and select BIOS Flash Update and then press [↵]:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Boot Menu BIOS Update

                                                                            To the top left select the open button:

                                                                            Select the Open Button to access files on drives.

                                                                            To the top select your UEB Flash Drive, this is normally File System 0 (FS0). Then select your BIOS Update and select OK:

                                                                            Select your BIOS Update from your USB Flash Drive.

                                                                            Select Begin Flash Update:

                                                                            Select Begin Flash Update.

                                                                            Select Yes at the warning acknowledging that your system is plugged in and will be left undisturbed during the update:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Update from USB power warning.

                                                                            The Dell UEFI BIOS Update will begin:

                                                                            The Dell UEFI BIOS Update will begin.

                                                                            Your UEFI BIOS will flash and your computer will automatically restart:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS update flash.

                                                                            Dell Unified Extensive Firmware Interface (UEFI) Settings

                                                                            Attach your Bootable USB and make sure your Dell PC is powered down. Then power it up and press [F2] to get into the UEFI setup. For a successful install a number of options should be configured.

                                                                            UEFI and Secure Boot

                                                                            Look for Advanced Boot Options and make sure Enable Legacy Option ROMs is Disabled.

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Disable Legacy Option ROMs.

                                                                            Look for Secure Boot and Ensure that it is Enabled:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Secure Boot is Enabled.

                                                                            This guide assumes the user wants: A Clean Install of Ubuntu and not a multi-boot. If you want a multi-boot do not remove entries from the Boot Sequences or perform the Dell Data Wipe.

                                                                            Trusted Platform Module (2.0)

                                                                            Under the Security Tab there should be a TPM 2.0 Security subtab. The TPM should be set to On and it should be set to Enabled. PPI Bypass for Enable Commands, Attestation, Key Storage and SHA-256 should be Enabled:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Trusted Platform Module (TPM 2.0) On.

                                                                            Boot Sequence

                                                                            Next go to Boot Sequence. It should be set to UEFI. Your Ubuntu Bootable USB (in my case the SanDisk USB) should display.

                                                                            If you have old versions of Windows or Linux they will also display. To remove these, uncheck your Bootable USB.

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup remove Old Boot Items from the Boot Sequence.

                                                                            Then select Delete Boot Option. You may have to recheck any other items and then select Delete Boot Options again until only your Bootable USB is listed:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Boot Sequence Remove Old Boot Entries.

                                                                            You should now have a single entry, your Ubuntu USB Flash Drive. The Boot List option should be UEFI with the Legacy Option greyed out:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Boot Sequence Botoable USB.

                                                                            SATA Operation

                                                                            In order to install Ubuntu, the SATA Operation must be AHCI. Installation will fail if a RAID configuration is used due to lack of storage controller support in the Linux Kernel.

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup SATA Operation must be AHCI for Linux.

                                                                            For best performance it is recommended to install Ubuntu on a >250 GB Solid State Drive (SSD). If you have a system with a mechanical Hard Drive (HDD) you should consider replacing it with a Solid State Drive (SSD). On a practical note, drive replacement is only really feasible when your computer can be opened up easily to access the Drive to swap it out.

                                                                            For systems that have a mechanical Hard Drive (HDD) that can't be easily replaced. Ubuntu should give better performance than Windows 10 which tends to lock up with 100 % Disk Usage on HDDs.

                                                                            Your installed drives will be listed under Drives. In this example a 256 GB SSD is listed:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Drives. Check if you have a 250 GB or greater SSD.

                                                                            ThunderBolt

                                                                            On Laptop systems with a Dell Type-C Dock you will also need to select Dell Type-C Dock Configuration and paradoxically disable the setting "Always Allow Dell Docks":

                                                                            Select USB/Thunderbolt Configuration and Enable all Support and set the Security Level to No Security:

                                                                            It is recommended to remove the Laptop from the Dock while installing Linux and to attach it post install. You should use the Linux Vendor Firmware Service to update the Docks firmware during the first time use as this may alleviate some issues experienced with the Dock on Linux. I demonstrate this with a WD19TB. Note that some older Docks such as the TB16 have firmware updates which are only available in Windows.

                                                                            Secure Erase Internal Drives

                                                                            Dell Business Models (OptiPlex, Latitude, Precision, XPS ranges) manufactured in late 2015 include the Dell Data Wipe utility within the Dell UEFI BIOS Setup. This utility may also be included with newer Dell Home Models (Inspiron range).

                                                                            We can use Dell Data Wipe for a more through wipe of all internal drives than the Format within the Ubuntu install. The Dell Data Wipe will not touch any USB Devices such as the Ubuntu Bootable USB. To do this select the Maintenance Tag and then go to Data Wipe, select Wipe on Next Boot.

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup start a Dell Data Wipe:

                                                                            Select OK:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Dell Data Wipe Warning 1.

                                                                            The next question is phrased as a Negative. Select No not to Cancel the Oepration:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Dell Data Wipe Warning 2.

                                                                            To Apply the changes select Apply:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Apply the changes.

                                                                            Select OK:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup confirm changes:

                                                                            Select Exit to Exit the Dell UEFI BIOS Setup and begin the Dell Data Wipe:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Exit.

                                                                            You will see the Dell UEFI BIOS splash logo:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Setup Exit.

                                                                            To proceed with the Dell Data Wipe use [←] to highlight Continue and press [↵]:

                                                                            Dell Data Wipe Continue dialog.

                                                                            Then use [→] to highlight Erase and press [↵]:

                                                                            Dell Data Wipe Erase Confirmation.

                                                                            The Dell Data Wipe will begin to wipe all internal drives. It will take approximately 2 minutes for a SSD. It will take several hours for a mechanical HDD:

                                                                            Dell Data Wipe Progress.

                                                                            When done you will be prompted to Reboot. Press [↵]:

                                                                            Dell Data Wipe Reboot Prompt.

                                                                            You will see a black screen which will inform you that the Data Wipe is complete. Press [F1] and then immediate after press [F12]:

                                                                            Booting from the Ubuntu Live USB

                                                                            Insert your Bootable USB Flash Drive into your Dell and press [F12] while powering up to get to the Boot Menu. The Boot Mode should be set to UEFI and Secure Boot should be Enabled.

                                                                            Select your USB Flash Drive and press [↵]:

                                                                            Dell UEFI BIOS Boot Menu. Zorin OS 16 Bootable USB.

                                                                            Select Ubuntu:

                                                                            You will see the Dell UEFI BIOS logo with the Ubuntu logo:

                                                                            This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Untitled-160.jpg

                                                                            It will check the USB and load the setup: efore starting the Linux Live Environment the integrity of the Bootable USB will be checked:

                                                                            You will be informed once the integrity check is complete:

                                                                            You will then see an animated Ubuntu Logo:

                                                                            This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Untitled-160.jpg

                                                                            You will now be running the Ubuntu Live USB:

                                                                            Installing Ubuntu

                                                                            Select Install Ubuntu:

                                                                            Select your keyboard layout and select Next:

                                                                            Select your wireless network and select Connect:

                                                                            Input your wireless password and select Connect:

                                                                            Select Continue:

                                                                            Check Install third-party software for graphics and Wi-Fi hardware and additional media formats:

                                                                            The Ubuntu Boot 20.04 is signed to pass Secure Boot but some of the codecs used and third party graphics drivers are not. You will get limited functionality without these.

                                                                            The Ubuntu install can enable these and we can still use Secure Boot. To do this the Ubuntu setup which will create a boot entry that include the media codecs and any applicable third party drivers for your hardware and prompt you to create a Machine Owner Key (MOK).

                                                                            During the first Boot of the Ubuntu install the UEFI BIOS will inform you that there is a new Boot Entry but will only allow it to Boot if you authorise the Boot with the Machine Owner Key. This is a single instance verification, after it is initialised the UEFI BIOS will remember the Boot entry and automatically Boot.

                                                                            Select Continue:

                                                                            Select Erase Disk and Install Ubuntu. You can optionally select Advanced Features.

                                                                            To encrypt the Drive. In this case I won't use any advanced features and select None and then OK:

                                                                            Select Install Now:

                                                                            Select Continue:

                                                                            Select your time-zone:

                                                                            Input your name, username and password. Note your username has to be all lower case. Select Continue:

                                                                            The install will proceed:

                                                                            Select Restart Now:

                                                                            When this screen shows. Press [↵] and then remove the installation media… If you remove the installation media before pressing [↵] an error will display which you can close.

                                                                            Machine Owner Key (MOK)

                                                                            When Ubuntu tries to Boot with the third party codecs it will be blocked by the UEFI BIOS. Select Enroll MOK:

                                                                            Select Continue:

                                                                            Select Yes to Enroll the key(s):

                                                                            Input the password (note on my systems there is no indication on the screen for character input) and then press [↵]:

                                                                            Then select Reboot:

                                                                            First Time Boot

                                                                            Ubuntu should then Boot:

                                                                            You will be presented with options to sign in with online accounts:

                                                                            To sign up to Live Patch. Note you will still get security updates without signing up to this:

                                                                            You can optionally send system feedback to Canonical to help improve the Ubuntu Operating System:

                                                                            You can optionally enable Location Services (needed if you are to use location based services and things like maps):

                                                                            Select Done:

                                                                            You have now installed Ubuntu.

                                                                            Software Updater

                                                                            To the top select Activities, then select All Applications at the bottom and launch Software Updater:

                                                                            Select Install Now:

                                                                            An Authentication Prompt will display which is equivalent to the Windows 10 User Account Control. A Linux Authentication Prompt requires the user to input their password and select Authenticate opposed to just selecting Yes in Windows. This will run the software update as a super user.

                                                                            Select Restart Now to finish installing the updates:

                                                                            You should then see your OEM logo as your computer reboots:

                                                                            Then the OEM logo with Ubuntu at the bottom:

                                                                            And then be taken into the login screen:

                                                                            Fixing the Black Splash Screen Issue after Software Updates

                                                                            On some Dell systems (for example my XPS 13 9365) you may get stuck at the Dell Ubuntu Splash Screen with the white spinner. The white spinner will rotate but nothing else will happen.

                                                                            To get around this power off the system by holding down the power button for 30 seconds. This will power down your system.

                                                                            Note older ThunderBolt TB docks seem to be incompatible with the Ubuntu 20.04 Boot such as the TB-16. These should be dis-attached from the system. The dock will work once Ubuntu has booted. The dock likely needs a firmware update from Dell (but the TB-16 is discontinued and Dell had many issues with it and don't list it as Ubuntu compatible so there may not be any firmware updates for it).

                                                                            When you first power up the Dell you will see a Dell splash logo. Press the [Esc] key. You will see a blue progress bar display.

                                                                            If you see the black screen with the spinner you have either been too slow to press [Esc] or have pressed [Esc] twice you will have exited the GNU Bootloader. In either case you will need to hold down the power button for 30 s and try again.

                                                                            The GNU GRUB screen will display.

                                                                            Press [↓] and highlight Advance Options for Ubuntu then press [↵]:

                                                                            Press [↓] and select the latest Kernel (Recovery Mode) then press [↵]:

                                                                            You will see a black screen with some writing. The first line should state:

                                                                            EFI stub: UEFI Secure Boot is Enabled.

                                                                            It will then Start Recovery Mode:

                                                                            Press the [↓] and highlight the dpkg which will check for broken packages and pending packages to be installed and press [↵]:

                                                                            Select Yes and press [↵]:

                                                                            Then type in [y] and press [↵]:

                                                                            Press [↵] to finish the dkpg:

                                                                            Now press [↓] and highlight grub which will update the bootloader. Press [↵]:

                                                                            Press [↵] to finish updating the bootloader:

                                                                            Once this is done select resume and press [↵]:

                                                                            Then select ok and press [↵]:

                                                                            Your system should boot normally. Check the Software Updater again.

                                                                            If you still get stuck at the Dell Ubuntu Splash Screen with the white spinner. Return to the Recovery Menu. Then press [↓] until you get to root, which will launch the root shell prompt. Then press [↵]:

                                                                            Type in

                                                                            sudo su

                                                                            To run all commands as the root user.

                                                                            A list of commands for NVIDIA graphics card in particular are given in the article below:

                                                                            To exit the root shell prompt press down [Ctrl] + [ d ].

                                                                            Once this is done select resume and press [↵]:

                                                                            Then select ok and press [↵]:

                                                                            Your system should boot normally. Check the Software Updater again.

                                                                            Additional Drivers

                                                                            In the case of my OptiPlex 7040, ThinkStation P320, Latitude 7350 and XPS 13 9365 all necessary system drivers were inbuilt. The auto-rotation sensor of the Latitude 7350 and XPS 13 9365 worked when undocked as a tablet.

                                                                            Additional drivers such as graphics drivers for NVIDIA graphics cards should be installed automatically. They can be checked with Additional Drivers:

                                                                            In the case of the ThinkCenter P320 the latest NVIDIA driver is automatically installed for the graphics card:

                                                                            Optimising for Touch Input

                                                                            To optimise for Touchscreen select show applications:

                                                                            Then scroll down until you get to Settings:

                                                                            To the left hand side, select Screen Display:

                                                                            Enable Fractional Scaling and set to 125-200 % depending on what you feel is appropriate your touchscreen resolution.

                                                                            Select Keep Changes:

                                                                            Also go to Universal Access and swipe, Always Show Universal Access:

                                                                            To the top right, the Universal Access setting will display. You can enable the Touchscreen Keyboard:

                                                                            This will automatically open if you are in a field with text entry:

                                                                            The rotation sensor should be installed by default on most 2 in 1 systems and autorotation should be enabled by default. For example as seen on the XPS 13 9365:

                                                                            XPS 13 9365 – Ubuntu 20.04 Laptop Mode
                                                                            XPS 13 9365 – Ubuntu 20.04 Tablet Mode
                                                                            XPS 13 9365 – Ubuntu 20.04 Tent Mode

                                                                            Resolving the FireFox Touchscreen Scrolling Issue

                                                                            Unfortunately the preinstalled browser FireFox is configured only for keyboard and mouse use and is awful with a touchscreen user interface. This ruins the Ubuntu Out of Box Experience of Ubuntu 20.04 on Touchscreen.

                                                                            In essence it has a major issue with scrolling, highlighting text opposed to scrolling:

                                                                            Enabling the xinput2 setting in your user profile will resolve the issue. Open a terminal and type in:

                                                                            echo export MOZ_USE_XINPUT2=1 | sudo tee /etc/profile.d/use-xinput2.sh

                                                                            Because you are using a command which contains sudo which is an abbreviation for "super user do" you will need to provide your password. This is the command line equivalent to the Authentication Prompt which is equivalent to the Windows 10 User Account Control Prompt.

                                                                            To apply the changes you will need to log out and then log back in.

                                                                            Installing Chromium via the Software Store

                                                                            In my opinion the Chromium Browser (the open source project both Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge are based upon) gives a vastly superior touchscreen experience and overall experience to FireFox. Chromium can be installed from the Software Store. Select Ubuntu software:

                                                                            Select the search button:

                                                                            Type in Chromium. The Ubuntu Snapd Chromium package will display.

                                                                            This Snap package will install all the perquisites for Chromium and then Chromium itself as well as applying auto-updates to the Chromium browser.

                                                                            Select Install:

                                                                            Installation requires authentication (this is the general user interface equivalent of sudo and Linux equivalent of a Windows User Account Control Prompt). Input your password to authorise the install:

                                                                            You now have Chromium:

                                                                            You can right click icons on the side panel and remove the unwanted ones. Or you can alternatively swipe them off the side panel:

                                                                            The Activities window will show all opened applications and folders:

                                                                            All opened applications will also display on the side panel and an orange dot will be beside them indicating they have one instance opened. Two orange dots will display beside them, if you have more windows opened.

                                                                            We can right click the items we want to pin to the side panel and pin them or drag them to the side panel:

                                                                            These settings work well with the Dell XPS 13 9365 2 in 1 convertible system in laptop, tent and tablet mode:

                                                                            Installing Chromium via the Terminal

                                                                            It is worthwhile to take the time to understand the procedure of software installation via the terminal as some third-party software installation guides will require you to use the commands particularly for more specialised software. Many new Linux users unfortunately just blindly input commands opposed to taking a moment to understand them.

                                                                            There are a few commonly used software packages in Ubuntu such as snap, apt and apt-get. Snap is a newer package manager designed to make it easier to install software perquisites and then the software itself. The apt package manager is available in more Linux distributions. I will use the installation of Chromium to explore the concepts behind these package managers.

                                                                            Snap

                                                                            To get details about snap type in the following command:

                                                                            snap help

                                                                            This will give you a brief description.

                                                                            Here you see the form:

                                                                            snap <command> [option]

                                                                            The <command> used was help

                                                                            To get a full description type in:

                                                                            snap help --all

                                                                            Here help is the <command> used and –all is the [option] specified.

                                                                            If the option begins with a double dash — it is an option flag and if the option begins with a single dash – it is part of an option selection. A flag is a Boolean which means it can either have the value True or False. When not called it is set to False (detailed help doesn't display). When called it is set to True and so detailed help displays.

                                                                            An option selection allows for multiple options to be used for more complicated commands.

                                                                            The most commonly used commands are used for software installation and software removal. The snap store will always look for the latest mainstream versions of the Snap packages and there is no need to refresh it like the apt or apt-get package managers.

                                                                            To install the "chromium" software use (replace "chromium" with the name of your software:

                                                                            sudo snap install chromium

                                                                            The command begins with sudo an abbreviation for super user do (the Linux equivalent to run as administrator in Windows). The first line in a terminal session beginning with sudo will prompt for authentication and the user must input their password.

                                                                            Once the password is input the software will install:

                                                                            To remove the "chromium" software use:

                                                                            sudo snap remove chromium

                                                                            Once again the command begins with sudo.

                                                                            Removal of the software usually leaves behind some configuration files which may be reused if the software is reinstalled. Sometimes the settings in the configuration files can be problematic and the flag purge can be added to remove both the software and remove (or purge) the software's configuration. Use the command:

                                                                            sudo snap remove --purge chromium

                                                                            Some other software packages may include a series of prompts "are you sure you want to remove …?" and the option -y may be included to automatically select yes to each of these prompts.

                                                                            sudo snap remove --purge -y chromium

                                                                            Advanced Package Tool (APT)

                                                                            The Advanced Package Tool (APT) is commonly used to install software. To see a list of available commands open up a terminal windows and type in:

                                                                            apt

                                                                            When using apt it is recommended to first of all check for updates to apt itself to refresh the versions of software the advanced package tool references. This is done by using the command:

                                                                            sudo apt-get update

                                                                            The command begins with sudo an abbreviation for super user do (the Linux equivalent to run as administrator in Windows). The first line in a terminal session beginning with sudo will prompt for authentication and the user must input their password.

                                                                            To install the "chromium-browser" software (replace "chromium browser" with the name of your software) use:

                                                                            sudo apt install chromium-browser

                                                                            The apt command line will install the same Chromium snap package that is installed using the snap command or Ubuntu software store (i.e. in this case is an alias to the command sudo snap install chromium).

                                                                            To remove software using apt use:

                                                                            sudo apt remove chromium-browser

                                                                            This is an alias to the command sudo snap remove chromium. Removal of the software leaves behind some configuration files which may be reused if the software is reinstalled. Sometimes the settings in the configuration files can be problematic and the flag purge can be added to remove both the software and remove (or purge) the software's configuration. Use the command:

                                                                            sudo apt remove --purge chromium-browser

                                                                            This is an alias to the command sudo snap remove –purge chromium.

                                                                            The option -y can sometimes be added to an uninstall which will automatically mean yes is selected if the terminal prompts you about removal of a file.

                                                                            sudo apt remove --purge -y chromium-browser

                                                                            Some other software packages may include a series of prompts "are you sure you want to remove …?" and the option -y may be included to automatically select yes to each of these prompts.

                                                                            This acts an alias to the command sudo snap remove –purge -y chromium

                                                                            Advanced Package Tool Get (APT-Get)

                                                                            apt was made to simplify the install procedure of apt-get. The simplification is a few characters less in the terminal and also the information supplied back to the user when using the command may be more concise. This essentially means that for a software package where both command are available apt should in general be used in preference of apt-get.

                                                                            To find out more details about apt-get open up a terminal and type in:

                                                                            apt-get

                                                                            Once again the most commonly used commands are to check for updates to apt-get itself:

                                                                            sudo apt-get update

                                                                            To install software:

                                                                            sudo apt-get install chromium-browser

                                                                            And to remove software:

                                                                            sudo apt-get remove chromium-browser

                                                                            The –purge flag and -y option may be added to this command in the same manner as demonstrated above with apt.

                                                                            Third Party Repositories

                                                                            The Chromium Snap and Chromium-Browser (apt and apt-get which redirects to the Chromium Snap) software installed above is available in the official software repository. This repository will be referenced by default when installing software.

                                                                            There has been some resistance to the snap packages by some Linux users and developers of other Linux distributions. They do not like the fact that the snap install auto-updates the Chromium browser and see this as the introduction for instability opposed to a security feature. Moreover they do not like the fact that the command sudo apt install chromium browser acts an an alias to sudo snap install chromium.

                                                                            Instead of using the Ubuntu software repository we can use a third party developers Personal Package Archive (PPA) to install Chromium. The PPA is normally in the form of developer/project. We will use the developer system76 and the project pop (POP OS! is a modified Ubuntu distribution). This project contains Chromium as a native apt package opposed to an alias for the snap package:

                                                                            sudo add-apt-repository ppa:system76/pop

                                                                            Then the command:

                                                                            sudo apt update

                                                                            Will check for updates to the official repository in addition to updates from the third-party repository.

                                                                            To install Chromium from the pop repository use:

                                                                            sudo apt install chromium

                                                                            The Chromium browser installed using this method will be outdated compared to the snap installed version.

                                                                            Third party software repositories are listed within the Other Software tab of software and updates:

                                                                            If you want to remove a third-party ppa, it is first recommended to remove the third party software.

                                                                            To uninstall the apt version of chromium use:

                                                                            sudo apt remove chromium

                                                                            To remove the ppa you need to add the flag –remove.

                                                                            sudo add-apt-repository --remove ppa:system76/popos

                                                                            UEFI BIOS Settings for Thunderbolt Dell Dock Compatibility

                                                                            Ubuntu seems to have issues with Dell Thunderbolt Docks during Boot.

                                                                            On my XPS 13 9365 with a TB16 or WD19TB the system hung during Boot when the Laptop Lid was open unless paradoxically Always Allow Dell Docks was Disabled and the Thunderbolt Security was set to No Security.

                                                                            To change these setting, power up your Dell Laptop and press [F2] to enter the UEFI BIOS Setup:

                                                                            This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Untitled-195-1.jpg

                                                                            Select Dell Type-C Dock Configuration and change to the following:

                                                                            Select USB/Thunderbolt Configuration and change to the following:

                                                                            When the Laptop Lid was closed, Ubuntu seemed to Boot but only return a Black Screen. i.e. no display was output. Likely a newer Firmware Update is required for these Thunderbolt Docks.

                                                                            Booting the laptop without the Dock and then plugging the Dock it seems to work.

                                                                            Linux Vendor Firmware Service

                                                                            For newer systems you may be able to use the Linux Vendor Firmware Service to keep your UEFI BIOS and Firmware up to date. For more details see:

                                                                            Creating a Windows 10 UEFI Bootable USB in Ubuntu

                                                                            From time to time there have been questions asking how to reinstall Windows and there have been numerous issues due to the fact that the install.wim within the Windows 10 direct download link ISO often exceeds 4.0 GB and therefore cannot fit on a FAT32 Bootable USB (some utilities will truncate the file making corrupt installation media and others will change the file system to NTFS so the file can fit getting rejected by Secure Boot).

                                                                            I have created an up to date guide with instructions on either creating a UEFI Bootable USB that passes Secure Boot or a Legacy BIOS Bootable USB.

                                                                            2 thoughts on “Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

                                                                            1. The installation of Ubuntu 20.04 in the Latitude 7350 2 in 1 worked? Out of the box?

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